This site is intended for health professionals only

At the heart of general practice since 1960

Read the latest issue online

The docbot will see you now

Emeritus Hospital Consultant.

  • One in four adults prescribed addictive medicines, says PHE review

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 12 Sep 2019 2:18pm

    "Psychiatric drugs and some general medications have effects that are not always the ones that are intended".

    "Reactions to different drugs and drug-drug combinations are governed by individual metabolising rates".

    "It is established (that) genetic polymorphisms in the CYP 450 and serotoninergic metabolising system cause higher drug levels which are associated with neuropsychiatric adverse drug reactions (ADRs) such as akathisia".

    "If not recognised, akathisia, which often precedes violence, suicidality, homicide, mania and psychosis, may be mistaken for new or emergent mental illness and treated with further ineffective, counter-productive psychiatric drugs".

    Reference: -

    Treatment Emergent Violence To Self And Others; A literature Review of Neuropsychiatric Adverse Reactions For Antidepressant And Neuroleptic Psychiatric Drugs And General Medications.

    Clarke C. Evans J. Brogan K. 2019.

    US National Library of Medicine. N.I.H. Adv Mind Body Med. 2019. Winter, 33(1): 4-21.

    (It is recognised that reports of akathisia as a precursor to harm against self and/or others are subject to widely different opinion and interpretation).


  • One in four adults prescribed addictive medicines, says PHE review

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 10 Sep 2019 2:42pm

    This review from P.H.E concludes with:

    "Further Research" -

    5.1 "Isolating withdrawal effects (especially of antidepressants) from the original disorder and its return.

    Surely this will require greater awareness and understanding of SSRI/SNRI and "Atypical"antidepressant induced akathisia and its potentially fatal sequelae?

    Induction, dose increase, A.D. change all can trigger akathisia and the akathisic patient is then at risk of misdiagnosis of this condition, and its overwhelming suffering, as emergent serious mental illness.

    Akathisia is also a life-threatening component of AD withdrawal syndromes and carries the same risk of misdiagnosis and exacerbation by increasing the dose or by "augmented" psychotropic medication.

    Agitation is mentioned in the summary of clinical features of AD withdrawal syndromes, but agitation is a key indicator of akathisia.

    (Alongside adverse changes in feelings, emotions, behaviour, ceaseless pacing, bizarre abnormal movement (dyskinesia) - in addition to overwhelming agitation).

    5.2 "Better understanding the incidence, duration, nature and severity of withdrawal from antidepressants, including long-term and enduring side effects".

    A commitment to address the long term and life changing syndrome of post SSRI sexual dysfunction - (as an ADR and not a feature of
    "the underlying disorder") - might restore some hope to those in despair.

    For a class of drugs advocated as a component of chemical castration, denial of PSSD seems a remarkable response to a common outcome of taking, and for some, long after ceasing antidepressant Rx.

    AD/SSRI induced akathisia has been described in published scientific literature for some thirty years, some would state 40 years.
    Terms such as "hyperkinesis" and "emotional lability" have decreased the visibility of akathisia in sponsored clinical trials.

    "Depressive psychosis is vanishingly rare compared to treatment induced akathisia".

    Sad indeed to see the latter misdiagnosed as the former.

    Sad indeed that committed G.P.s feel the discomfort induced by this P.H.E. Report.

    Prescribers can only follow the evidence base available to them via CME.
    The same, industry funded C.M.E evidence base used by Regulators and promoted by Key Opinion Leaders.

  • Coroner criticises GPs for not following NICE guidance after suicide of patient

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 06 Jun 2019 10:41am

    accessdata.fda.gov
    "There has been a long standing concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment".

    This adverse drug reaction (ADR) has been reported in healthy volunteers. (SSRI).

    accessdata.fda.gov
    "All patients being treated with antidepressants FOR ANY INDICATION should be monitored appropriately and observed for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behaviour, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy or at times of DOSE CHANGES, either increases or decreases".

    (My emphasis - the same should apply to any change of antidepressant drug).

    This recommended observation is presumably required for the early identification of AKATHISIA and/or BEHAVIOURAL TOXICITY.

    How can any G.P. "monitor" this?

    Parents, partners, flat sharers, loved ones are those who might achieve this safeguard, but they must be informed, and understand the reasons for doing so.

    (Refer to: The Behavioural Toxicity of Psychotropic Drugs. Di Mascio 1968. Perl et al 1980.
    Fava G.A et al - Editorial 2019).

    Behavioural Toxicities, and Akathisia in patients given SSRIs for non-depressive conditions may have fatal consequences.

    Rather than criticise prescribers, might not coroners, prescribers, parents and loved ones work collaboratively?

    Together, they would have the opportunity to review, and to document, detailed prescription events and relate the timing of drug and dose changes to the onset of both Behavioural Toxicities and/or Akathisia.

    This would clarify the controversial, but evidence based,
    "taking-of-life-by-self" via adverse drug reactions.
    A loss of life which, unless specifically investigated, may be vulnerable to inappropriate recording as "Suicide".

    A tragic, preventable loss of life.

  • GP suspended after secretly filming CQC inspections

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 10 Dec 2018 11:07am

    So - This GP is suspended by the Medical Practitioners Tribunal Service for two months after filming a CQC inspection.

    The GMC said: "This behaviour was not in the interests of keeping his patients well looked after".

    However, according to The News and Star - 17th November 2018:
    An allegedly "trained" - (but with no qualifying MB BS)
    fake "psychiatrist" appeared before the M.P.T.S.

    Phil Coleman reported:

    "More worryingly, she sanctioned the detention of psychiatric patients (against their will for treatment) despite at the time not having authority to do such work".

    "For this she was given an official warning by the Medical Practitioners Tribunal".

    Was this behaviour "in the interests of keeping her patients well looked after"?

    --------------------

    "This was a very difficult and upsetting experience for our inspection team who should be able to do their job of regulating and inspecting general practice without experiencing this type of treatment by medical professionals".

    Traumatised CQC inspectors might be well advised to avoid the possibility of a "diagnosis" of PTSD, and all the accompanying, evidenced-based, high risk of serious and prolonged SSRI-ADRs/neurotoxicity and discontinuation syndromes.




  • We need to tackle societal problems to stem the tide of mental illness

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 26 Nov 2018 1:15pm

    "We need ------ to stem the tide of mental illness".

    "One contributing factor is almost certainly the increase in the identification and labelling of mental illness" --

    "There is also likely a good deal of over-diagnosis" ---

    Agreed.

    Labelling and over-diagnosis cause great individual, and family suffering.

    Psychotropic drug-induced neuro-toxicities (ADRs) may be life threatening in intensity, for example SSRI/SNRI induced akathisia.

    These ADRs are vulnerable to misdiagnosis, resulting in labels-for-life.

    In addition to physical/neurological injury: -

    ADRs to psychotropic drugs cause changes in thinking, emotion or behaviour, associated with distress and problems in social, work or family activities.

    Yet, these common ADRs are most likely to be interpreted as emergent, severe mental illness.

    This is because of how mental illness is defined:

    The American Psychiatric Association Defines Mental Illness as follows:

    "Mental illnesses are health conditions involving changes in thinking, emotion or behaviour associated with distress, and problems functioning in social work or family activities".

    In addition to akathisia's writhing, contorted "restlessness" and
    the intense, intolerable suffering for the patient, and the desperate anguish of partner, parents, loved ones (who are not warned to look out for this common ADR): -
    The toxic patient is then likely to be exposed to higher doses of, and/or additional akathisia-inducing psychiatric drugs.

    The resulting increased intensity of akathisia is then re-interpreted as further evidence of SMI.

    Section, enforced, long-term drugging and multi-systems toxicity results in physical, psychological, social, emotional and economic injury.

    How many of those condemned by inclusion on the S.M.I. Register are mis-labelled ADRs?

    Many may have no mental illness, especially those given SSRIs for life's normal day-to-day stressors where there was no depression whatsoever.

    Societal rejection and societal exclusion may well follow.

    The reality of the much publicised, changing psychiatric epidemiology cannot be accurately interpreted until misdiagnosis due to prescription drug ADR is addressed in detail and without prejudice.

  • Thousands of doctors from overseas face GMC qualifications probe after fraud case

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 20 Nov 2018 3:00pm

    "Doctor who faked will of west Cumbrian widow led life of deception".

    Phil Coleman of the News and Star, 17th November 2018.
    (Accessed via the above link) wrote: -

    "More worryingly, she sanctioned the detention of psychiatric patients (against their will) for treatment, despite at the time not having authority to do such work".

    "For this she was given an official warning by the Medical Practitioners Tribunal".

    Is this correct?


  • NICE antidepressant withdrawal guidance ‘misleading’ and ‘without evidence’

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 09 Oct 2018 2:32pm

    Re: Acute, sub-acute, chronic, legacy neurotoxicity of SSRIs/SNRIs.

    Induction, dose increase/decrease, SSRI/SNRI drug change, and SSRI/SNRI-withdrawal induced akathisia.

    --------------------

    FDA - Highlights of Prescribing Information. Fluoxetine.
    Ref. 2927282. U.S.A.

    24. - 17 -2.

    "Patients, their families and care givers should be alert to emergence of anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, AKATHISIA (my emphasis)
    other unusual changes in behaviour, worsening of depression and suicidal ideation -
    Especially during antidepressant treatment when the dose is adjusted up or down".

    "Families and care givers should be advised to look out for the emergence of such symptoms on a day to day basis , since such changes may be abrupt".

    "Such symptoms should be reported to the patient's prescriber or health professional, especially if they are severe, abrupt in onset, or not part of the patient's presenting symptoms".

    "Symptoms such as these may be associated with an increased risk in suicidal thinking and behaviour ---".

    -------------------------------------

    AKATHISIA has been "disguised" in ghost-written, pharmaceutical industry-funded clinical trials by the use of terminology such as "hyperkinesia" and "emotional lability".

    Akathisia is a common, but commonly unrecognised, SSRI/SNRI severe neurotoxicity.

    It is vulnerable to misdiagnosis as emergent severe mental illness yet:

    "Depressive psychoses are vanishingly rare compared to treatment induced akathisia".

    Will revised guidelines, heavily influenced by ghost-written, industry funded "science", at last begin to reduce the prevalence of this common, prescription drug induced, life threatening ADR?

    If they do not, then one set of questionable guidelines will simply have been replaced by another.




  • Patients with severe mental illness have worse physical health, GP data reveal

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 30 Sep 2018 11:44am

    To address the tragic premature deaths and serious morbidity in those diagnosed (and misdiagnosed) as suffering from severe mental illness (SMI) - it is necessary to consider the multi-systems toxicities of the drugs they are compelled to take.

    "Antipsychotics" and "Mood Stabilisers" are marketing terms, they are not strictly accurate pharmacological classifications.

    The brain/neurotoxicity, endocrine, metabolic/obesity/diabetes, cardiac/cardiovascular, gastro-intestinal, thermo-regulatory and genito-urinary/sexual dysfunction toxicities are prescription drug induced injuries.

    The "psychiatric" ADRs - (including some 50% antipsychotic prevalence of clinically significant akathisia and its sequelae) - are in fact neurotoxic injuries.

    These common ADRs are vulnerable to misinterpretation as further evidence of S.M.I. or emergent "psychiatric co-morbidites", leading to combination antipsychotic use and further increased risk of morbidity/premature death.

    The vastly increased prevalence of cigarette smoking has been reported to be a compensatory alleviation for the adverse effects of antipsychotic drugs on dopamine receptors.

    Their increased unemployment, social isolation, lost relationship opportunities, economic detriment, and their SMI diagnosis-induced societal rejection are further major adversities.

    SMI diagnoses are "Labels for Life" - albeit likely a foreshortened life.

    For parity to be achievable, surely the above factors are a necessary consideration?

  • Top GP issues mental health warning as 400 doctors die by suicide

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 05 Sep 2018 9:34pm

    Qato.D.M. Ozenburger. M.S. Olfson.M.

    Jama: Original Investigation. 2018.

    "Medications with depression, depressive disorder, suicide, suicidal thoughts,suicidal thoughts,suicidal ideation, or suicidal behaviour listed as common or serious adverse effects were defined as having a potential for depression as an adverse effect".

    "Suicide and suicidal thoughts and suicidal ideation, and suicidal behaviour were further sub-classified as having suicidal symptoms as adverse effect".

    Several classes of prescription drugs cause akathisia which is the common denominator underlying medication induced suicide.

    The increasing and overwhelming agitation, writhing restlessness and emotional blunting which are the dominant features of SSRI/SNRI induced akathisia are vulnerable to misdiagnosis as worsening or "emergent" serious mental Illness/illnesses.

    The prevalence of clinically significant akathisia in those taking these drugs has been reported as 20%.

    We are told that these drugs are used (apparently?)
    prophylactically in some doctors where adverse professional circumstances have caused vulnerability to depression.
    (R.S.M. Podcast).

    As far as I am aware, no meticulous prescription drug history, record of changes of (akathisia inducing) psychotropic medication, dose increase, decrease, or additional psychotropic drug augmentation is routinely made available as a component of the inquest reports on our colleagues who have died by alleged suicide.

    Surely a greater awareness of akathisia, the risk of misdiagnosis and the associated risk of induced suicidality justifies detailed, unbiased, objective investigation.

    If denial, and unwillingness to address the most serious ADR of SSRIs and SNRis predominates, how can it be known whether or not these tragic deaths in our colleagues, are being mis-classified as "suicide"?

    The life-long devastation of their families becoming even more unbearable as a result of a potentially incorrect verdict.


  • Ritalin should be first drug choice for children with ADHD, finds study

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 26 Aug 2018 8:14pm

    Marketing Masquerading as Medicine?

    "It should be easy to see that once we start interrogating basic assumptions, such as the validity of psychiatric diagnoses, then much of the literature built on such assumptions lacks validity".

    "As ADHD is not a medical diagnosis, but a descriptive classification, we have no reliable empirical method for defining 'caseness'.

    The definition of what qualifies as a case is thus arbitrary and depends on the standards employed by the diagnoser, influenced by whatever prevailing ideology concerning diagnosis they have been exposed to. As a result we cannot eliminate wide variation in 'diagnostic' practice".

    Professor Sami Timimi. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2018.

  • Antidepressant prescriptions increased by half a million last year

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 25 Jul 2018 9:18am

    Awareness of the increased risk of SSRI/SNRI induced suicidality and completed suicide has not lead to constraint in prescribing these psychoactive drugs for our children.

    It would appear that Black Box warnings do not overcome the prescribers understandable concern to try to alleviate distress, albeit driven perhaps by the restricted and delayed availability of CBT/psychotherapy.

    A recent landmark litigation verdict in Chicago was based on evidence that akathisia related suicide in a man of 57 years was due to his SSRI induced adverse drug reaction.
    Such evidence of SSRI increased suicidality and suicide in older adults is largely denied.


    Were consultation time available to ensure adequate patient-prescriber discussion of the risk-benefit analysis of these drugs, then patients and parents informed consent outcomes might inevitably lead to declining prescription rates.

    Outcomes in treating depression are at least unpredictable. Vulnerability to akathisia varies from patient to patient.

    What is more predictable is the adverse impact of SSRIs on genital neuro-physiology and the ADR of "multi-modal" sexual dysfunction.

    It has been reported that most who take these antidepressants will experience some degree of genital numbing.

    This may occur as quickly as within half an hour of the first dose.

    Amongst the many facets of SSRI induced sexual dysfunction, genital numbing is not a feature of the same condition where the aetiology lies in depression itself.

    Were parents and patients to be aware that the same drugs they are considering for themselves or their child are a component of "chemical castration" advocated for convicted sex offenders on a voluntary basis, would the pressure on prescribers then be alleviated?

  • Government to partner with Amazon's Alexa to offer NHS health advice

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 20 Jul 2018 12:29pm

    Perhaps SIRI might talk him through the work of Sir Denis Pereira Gray (and others) - so that he might understand the invaluable concept of The Extended-Consultation, and the Continuity of Care by the same GP? (Patient Safety and Quality of Care)?

    This unique and invaluable primary care philosophy really saves the NHS money.

    At least it used to, when it could still be achieved in Primary Care.

  • 'I just don't care anymore' - managing adolescent depression

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 28 Jun 2018 8:35pm

    https.//www.accessdata.fda.gov

    The FDA Full Prescribing Information for Fluoxetine reads as follows:

    17.2 Clinical Warning and Suicide Risk.

    "Patients, their families and their care givers should be encouraged to be alert to the emergence of anxiety, agitation, anxiety, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, other unusual changes in behaviour, worsening of depression and suicidal ideation, especially earl during antidepressant treatment or when the dose is adjusted up or down'.

    "Families and caregivers should be advised to look for the emergence of such symptoms on a day to day basis since such changes may be abrupt".

    "Such symptoms should be reported to the patients prescriber or health professional, especially if they are severe, abrupt in onset or were not part of the patient's presenting symptoms".

    "Symptoms such as these may be associated with a risk of increased suicidal thinking and behaviour and indicate a need for very close monitoring and possibly changes in the medication".

    Akathisia is not well described as psychomotor restlessness.
    It has been reported to occur to a level of clinical significance in 20% of patients treated with SSRIs.

    The intensity of this SSRI neurotoxicity may be so great as to result in a writhing, pacing, a tormented, incoherent patient, in desperation for relief pulling out clumps of scalp hair, eyelashes, even pubic hair (or rather tearing out body hair in anguish).

    The overwhelming and terrifying agitation in severe akathisia is devastating for patient and family.

    Reporting to the prescriber may lead, in good faith, to a diagnosis of S.M.I with detention and enforced drugging leading to even more severe agitation, akathisia and risk of serotonin syndrome.

    How might we be made more aware of this life threatening neurotoxicity?

  • Thank you and goodbye

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 27 Mar 2018 1:09pm

    Thank you.
    I first started reading PULSE in 1975, It is a valuable source of insight into General Practice for those working in other areas of Medicine.

  • In full: The 1,500 new medical school places

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 22 Mar 2018 4:04pm

    This seems the perfect opportunity for the global pharmaceutical marketing machine to take over command and control of undergraduate medical training.

    Having perfected marketing-masquerading-as-medicine in CME, and hence appraisal and re-accreditation, their influence and manipulation of the entire medical profession will be complete.


  • Time to listen to patients about prescription problems

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 07 Mar 2018 6:59pm

    Peter,

    Your series of posts above reflects sincere concern for patient wellbeing and safety.

    The fundamental importance of informed consent in the prescribing of psychotropic drugs is acknowledged, and your sincerity and professional integrity is respected.

    Thank you.

  • Time to listen to patients about prescription problems

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 07 Mar 2018 3:03pm

    Thank you Dr. Spence:

    "Time To Listen To Patients About Prescription Problems".

    "Patients complained about severe side effects but no one seemed to care or listen".

    Psychoactive prescription drugs do not only cause severe physical adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and protracted withdrawal or "discontinuation" syndromes They commonly also cause neuro-psychiatric brain toxicities.

    Not only are such neuro-psychiatric ADRs common, they are vulnerable to misdiagnosis as emergent "mental illnesses" or "psychiatric co-morbidities" - even when SSRIs/SNRIs have been prescribed for life's minor adversities, and where there was no pre-existing depression whatsoever.

    Accurate recognition and documentation of SSRI/SNRI discontinuation syndromes is vital for so many patients who feel isolated by prescriber denial and disbelief.

    They are vulnerable to experiencing additional distress due to an absence of expert medical support as they attempt to endure a protracted taper-withdrawal from psychotropic drugs.
    Drugs which have caused them physical, psychological and social detriment.

    Such recognition is also vital for prescribers in order to address a damaged doctor-patient relationship during the extended distress and vulnerability to psychiatric misdiagnosis during the extended taper-withdrawal experience.

    Such "Listening To Patients About (these) prescription problems" might also facilitate a greater awareness of, and empathy towards those suffering from adverse antidepressant withdrawal phenomena such as akathisia and post SSRI Persistent Sexual Dysfunction.(PSSD).

  • Antidepressants more effective than placebo for acute depression, study finds

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 23 Feb 2018 9:59am

    Might be worth considering the response from the Council for Evidence Based Psychiatry - UK?
    Re - "Finally putting to bed the controversy on antidepressants".

    "This statement is irresponsible and unsubstantiated" -

    Overall, the study's findings are highly limited, and do not support increasing antidepressant usage. Antidepressants are already being prescribed to around 10% of the UK population and current guidelines do not even support their use by at least one third of these patients.

    This study, and the media coverage that has accompanied it, will unfortunately do nothing to help reduce this level of unnecessary prescribing and the consequent harms".

    Also: -
    Professor Peter Gotzsche : Nordic Cochrane Centre- states:

    ----- "We have done such an analysis based on clinical study reports of placebo-controlled trials we have obtained from European drug regulators (submitted for publication)".

    "I will not reveal the details before our results have been published, but our results are very different from those shown in the Lancet paper".

    "The use of clinical study reports is crucial. The manufacturers had excluded patients from their analyses, which we were able to include. This is generally not possible for the systematic review done by Cipriani et al.
    So, these results are also flawed and should not be trusted".

    Cum Scientia Caritas?

  • 'I feel like something awful will happen' - managing OCD

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 18 Jan 2018 10:34am

    I FEEL LIKE SOMETHING AWFUL WILL HAPPEN.

    This forty-year old woman, already started on an antidepressant by her GP, has "recurrent unpleasant thoughts that something untoward would happen to her grandson if she did not perform tasks in certain ways or repeated a number of times".

    "As with all mental disorders, an effective management strategy will involve a determination the severity of symptoms"

    Surely a safe and effective management policy must afford high priority in her differential diagnosis to the consideration that this presentation may be that of a serious adverse drug reaction to the "antidepressant" - presumably an SSRI, which the narrative implies may have been recently introduced?

    The first management recommendation for psychological therapy may be safer and more appropriate in this case?

    The introduction of Fluoxetine or other SSRI has the potential to increase SSRI-neurotoxicity and hence to precipitate violence.

    Were this to happen, this woman is vulnerable to a life threatening psychotropic drug-induced ADR being misdiagnosed as emergent "co-morbidity" with potential for detention and enforced "treatment" with antidepressants and antipsychotics increasing the neuro-toxicity

    SSRI induced:
    Emotional Blunting, Akathisia, Disinhibition, Disinhibited Aggression/Aggressiveness - in addition to SSRI induced risk of violence against self or others may be a precursor of a psycho-pharmcologically induced risk of unintended harm to her grandson and to herself. The management dilemma (were this to be the case) is intense.

    Something awful could indeed happen.

    The above potential aetiology of the presenting condition requires withdrawal of her SSRI which will potentially alleviate akathisia and its related violence against self and others, but only if the tapered reduction/dose titration is gradual enough to prevent SSRI-discontinuation induced exacerbation of akathisia, (and/or other features of SSRI-discontinuation syndrome).

    "The effects of psychiatric drugs are not specific. They impair higher brain functions and cause similar effects in patients, healthy people and animals"

    Ref: Professor Peter C Gotzsche. Nordic Cochrane Centre.
    10th January 2018. bmj.com/content/360/bmj.k9/rr-15

    (Responce to Editor's Choice: What Are Your Burning Issues For 2018). BMJ 2018;360:k9

  • Over 42,000 dementia patients on antipsychotics, show first data

    Emeritus Hospital Consultant.'s comment 18 Dec 2017 1:46pm

    The sincere expressions of clinical difficulty and professional distress amongst doctors managing those with dementia are almost palpable.
    The demands placed upon those caring for patients with dementia must be fully acknowledged.

    There is a profound prescribing dilemma in that many of the serious toxicities of all antipsychotics are almost indistinguishable from the progressive irreversible intellectual impairment which defines the pathophysiology of dementia.

    Most evidently; - The behavioural and psychological toxicities of antipsychotics.

    It is the generally accepted viewpoint that psychotropic drugs may be more toxic in the presence of underlying organic brain disease.

    This increases the risk of antipsychotic induced akathisia, aggression and violence which cause immense suffering in the now toxic as well as dementing patient.
    The suffering in those who try to care for them is exacerbated.

    The next danger is now antipsychotic dose elevation and psychotropic drug augmentation with potential for further life-threatening adverse drug reactions.

    This is truly a medical "Catch-22" and those attempting to address the situation are surely to be respected.