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1 Gynaecomastia

  • is the result of low levels of circulating oestrogens
  • when physiological, typically occurs in adolescents and the elderly
  • is seen in hypothyroidism
  • can be a side effect of spironolactone, cimetidine and calcium channel blockers
  • may be caused by abuse of anabolic steroids or cannabis

2 Sebaceous cysts

  • arise from sebaceous glands
  • may disappear spontaneously
  • are common in children
  • only rarely appear on the palm or soles
  • may be part of Gardner's syndrome


3 A varicocele

  • affects between 10-15% of young men
  • is more common in men with subfertility
  • is more common on the right hand side
  • requires surgery
  • commonly causes discomfort

4 Chondrodermatitis nodularis helicis

  • is painless
  • can mimic a basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma
  • can be multiple
  • may have central ulceration
  • may require excision

Gynaecomastia Sebaceous cysts Varicocele Chondrodermatitis nodularis helicis Answers

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